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Eating from the Meat of Udhiyyah – Ibn Hazm Al Andalusi

Main: Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm
Translation: Taher Noor
Edited And Revised By: Abu Hazm Muhammad Sakib Choudhury

 

مَسْأَلَةٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُضَحٍّ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ

مَسْأَلَةٌ: فَرْضٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُضَحٍّ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ وَلَا بُدَّ لَوْ لُقْمَةً فَصَاعِدًا، وَفَرْضٌ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقَ أَيْضًا مِنْهَا بِمَا شَاءَ قَلَّ أَوْ كَثُرَ وَلَا بُدَّ، وَمُبَاحٌ لَهُ أَنْ يُطْعِمَ مِنْهَا الْغَنِيَّ، وَالْكَافِرَ، وَأَنْ يُهْدِيَ مِنْهَا إنْ شَاءَ ذَلِكَ.
فَإِنْ نَزَلَ بِأَهْلِ بَلَدِ الْمُضَحِّي جَهْدٌ أَوْ نَزَلَ بِهِ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فِي جَهْدٍ جَازَ لِلْمُضَحِّي أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ مِنْ حِينِ يُضَحِّي بِهَا إلَى انْقِضَاءِ ثَلَاثِ لَيَا كَامِلَةٍ مُسْتَأْنَفَةٍ يَبْتَدِئُهَا بِالْعَدَدِ مِنْ بَعْدِ تَمَامِ التَّضْحِيَةِ ثُمَّ لَا يَحِلُّ لَهُ أَنْ يُصْبِحَ فِي مَنْزِلِهِ مِنْهَا بَعْدَ تَمَامِ الثَّلَاثِ لَيَالٍ شَيْءٌ أَصْلًا – لَا مَا قَلَّ وَلَا مَا كَثُرَ.
فَإِنْ ضَحَّى لَيْلًا لَمْ يُعِدْ تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ فِي الثَّلَاثِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ تَقَدَّمَ مِنْهَا شَيْءٌ؛ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ شَيْءٌ مِنْ هَذَا فَلْيَدَّخِرْ مِنْهَا مَا شَاءَ.

 

Mas’ala: It is Fardh upon everyone who gives Udḥiyya [Qurbani] to eat from his Udḥiyya, regardless if it’s a small bite or more. And it is Fardh upon him, with no choice to give charity with it whether its little or a lot. It is allowed for him to feed the rich with it and the kāfir [non-muslim] and he is also allowed to gift however much he wants of it too.

And if difficulty comes to the people of a city or difficulty comes upon a group of Muslims in a locality, then it is permissible for the one giving Udḥiyya to eat from it as soon as he sacrifices it until the end of three entire continuous days. He begins counting the days after finishing the sacrifice and after that it is not halal for any single thing of it to remain in his house after three nights, no matter how little or how big.

And if he sacrifices at night time, then that night is not counted in amongst the three since some time has already gone past from the first night and if this is not part of the three complete nights then it is accumulated with whatever is after it.

 

رُوِّينَا مِنْ طَرِيقِ الْبُخَارِيِّ نَا أَبُو عَاصِمٍ هُوَ الضَّحَّاكُ بْنُ مَخْلَدٍ – عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَبِي عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْأَكْوَعِ قَالَ: قَالَ النَّبِيُّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: «مَنْ ضَحَّى مِنْكُمْ فَلَا يُصْبِحَنَّ بَعْدَ ثَالِثَةٍ وَفِي بَيْتِهِ مِنْهُ شَيْءٌ؛ فَلَمَّا كَانَ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ نَفْعَلُ كَمَا فَعَلْنَا الْعَامَ الْمَاضِيَ؟ قَالَ: كُلُوا، وَأَطْعِمُوا، وَادَّخِرُوا، فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ الْعَامَ كَانَ بِالنَّاسِ جَهْدٌ فَأَرَدْتُ أَنْ تُعِينُوا فِيهَا

Bukhari narrated from Salamah bin al-Akwa’ that the Prophet ﷺ said:

“Whoever has slaughtered a sacrifice should not keep anything of Its meat after three days.” When it was the next year the people said, “O Allah’s Messenger ﷺ! Shall we do as we did last year?” He said, ‘Eat of it and feed of it to others and store of it, for in that year the people were having a hard time and I wanted you to help (the needy).’” [Bukhari 5569]

 

وَمِنْ طَرِيقِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حَزْمٍ ” أَنَّ عَمْرَةَ بِنْتَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَتْ لَهُ سَمِعْت عَائِشَةَ أُمَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ تَقُولُ: إنَّهُمْ قَالُوا: «يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إنَّ النَّاسَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْأَسْقِيَةَ مِنْ ضَحَايَاهُمْ وَيَحْمِلُونَ فِيهَا الْوَدَكَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: وَمَا ذَاكَ؟ قَالُوا: نَهَيْتَ أَنْ تُؤْكَلَ لُحُومُ الضَّحَايَا بَعْدَ ثَلَاثٍ قَالَ – عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ -: بَعْدُ كُلُوا، وَادَّخِرُوا، وَتَصَدَّقُوا

It was narrated from ‘Āishah that:

“After that the people said to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ: Messenger of Allah, the people used to benefit from their sacrifices, take and dissolve fat from them, and make water-bags (from their skins).” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘What is that?’ They said: ‘Messenger of Allah ﷺ, you have prohibited to preserve the meat of sacrifice after three days.’ The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘I prohibited you due to a group of people who came to you. Now eat, store it up give and give it as sadaqah (alms).’” [Abū Dāwūd 2812]

And these are commands from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and it is not allowed to oppose them. Allah said:

فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

“And let those who oppose the Messenger’s commandment beware, lest some trials should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.” [Surah An-Nur 24:63]

Whoever claims that it is only ‘recommended’ then he is mistaken/lied, and following that which he has no knowledge about. And it is enough that all of the Saḥāba, may Allah be pleased with them, didn’t consider the Messenger’s prohibition, to not to have anything of the Udḥiyya remaining in their houses after three nights except as Fardh. And none were bold enough to oppose him unless it was with his permission. And there is no difference [in terms of ruling] between a command and prohibition. The messenger said:

إذَا نَهَيْتُكُمْ عَنْ شَيْءٍ فَاتْرُكُوهُ وَإِذَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ فَأْتُوا مِنْهُ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ

“When I forbid you to do anything, then abandon it. When I command you to do anything, do it as much as it lies in your power.” [Bukhari 7288]

And the messenger generalised the point that the food should be fed to anybody, and if it was Haram for any specific people then he would have clarified it.

وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيًّا

“And your Lord is never forgetful.” [Surah Maryam 19:64]

وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى إِنْ هُوَ إِلا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى

“He does not speak out of desire, rather it is a revelation inspired to him.” [Surah An-Najm 53:3-4]

And storing up for a period of time or longer is still storing up.

And the most amazing thing of all is everyone from those who try to deduce with their deficient intellects and their corrupted opinions an ‘illah [underlying reason for legislation not mentioned in the texts] for Allah’s commands or the messenger’s ﷺ commands have no proof from themselves except a false claim. Then such person will come to a ruling which the messenger made as a cause for another ruling and they will not turn their heads around about it. And the messenger ﷺ made having difficulty a cause for nothing of the Udḥiyya to remain with a person after three days. Yet they don’t turn their heads towards this and we seek refuge in Allah from this.

 

فَإِنْ ذَكَرُوا مَا رُوِّينَا مِنْ طَرِيقِ إبْرَاهِيم الْحَرْبِيِّ عَنْ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ مُوسَى عَنْ الْوَلِيدِ عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنْ عَطَاءٍ عَنْ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ «أَمَرَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنْ نَأْكُلَ مِنْهَا ثُلُثًا وَنَتَصَدَّقَ بِثُلُثِهَا وَنُطْعِمَ الْجِيرَانَ ثُلُثَهَا»

If they say what has been narrated from the chain of Ibrāhīm al-Ḥarbi from al-Ḥakam b. Mūsā from al-Walīd from Ṭalhah bin ‘Umar from ‘Ataa from ibn Mas’ūd: “The messenger of Allah commanded us to eat a third from it, give charity from a third and to feed guests with a third.”[Ibnu Abi Shaibah 13190]

Then Ṭalhah is famous for scandalous lying and ‘Ataa never met ibn Mas’ud, and he wasn’t born until after ibn Mas’ud died. And were it authentic, we would have held this view and been the most eager to act on it.

 

رُوِّينَا مِنْ طَرِيقِ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ عَنْ عُمَرَ عَنْ عَاصِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي مِجْلَزٍ قَالَ: أَمَرَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ أَنْ يُرْفَعَ لَهُ مِنْ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ بَضْعَةٌ وَيُتَصَدَّقَ بِسَائِرِهَا

However, we narrated from Abi Mijlaz that Ibn ‘Umar commanded that a portion of his Uḍhiyya should be given to him and the rest given to charity.

 

وَمِنْ طَرِيقِ أَبِي الْجَهْمِ نَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ فَرَجٍ نَا الْهَرَوِيُّ نَا ابْنُ فُضَيْلٍ عَنْ عَطَاءٍ.
عَنْ إبْرَاهِيمَ النَّخَعِيِّ قَالَ: سَافَرَ مَعِي تَمِيمُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ فَلَمَّا ذَبَحْنَا أُضْحِيَّتَهُ فَأَخَذَ مِنْهَا بَضْعَةً فَقَالَ: آكُلُهَا؟ فَقُلْت لَهُ: وَمَا عَلَيْك أَنْ لَا تَأْكُلَ مِنْهَا؟ فَقَالَ تَمِيمٌ: يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {فَكُلُواْ مِنۡہَا وَأَطۡعِمُواْ ٱلۡبَآٮِٕسَ ٱلۡفَقِيرَ} [الحج: 28] فَتَقُولُ أَنْتَ: وَمَا عَلَيْك أَنْ لَا تَأْكُلَ

And from ‘Ataa that Ibrāhim al-Nakhā’ī said, “Tameem bin Salamah travelled with me and when we slaughtered our Udḥiyya he took a portion and said ‘shall I eat it?’ so I said, ‘what is stopping you eating from it?’ he said that Allah said:

فَكُلُواْ مِنۡہَا وَأَطۡعِمُواْ ٱلۡبَآٮِٕسَ ٱلۡفَقِيرَ

‘Then eat from it [the Udḥiyya] and feed with it the poor who have a hard time.’ [Surah Al-Hajj 22:28]

And you say, ‘what is stopping you from eating it.’”

[Translators Note: We also find another similar ayah in the same surah verse number 36:

فَكُلُواْ مِنۡہَا وَأَطۡعِمُواْ ٱلۡقَانِعَ وَٱلۡمُعۡتَرَّ‌ۚ

Eat thereof and feed the beggar and the suppliant. [Surah Al-Hajj 22:36)]

Abū Muḥammad [Ibn Ḥazm] said:

Tameem held this command to be Wājib and this is the truth which no one has explained better than him. And Tameem is amongst the major companions of ibn Mas’ūd.

 

وَمِنْ طَرِيقِ ابْنِ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ فُضَيْلٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ عَنْ مَوْلًى لِأَبِي سَعِيدٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ لِبَنِيهِ: إذَا ذَبَحْتُمْ أَضَاحِيكُمْ فَأَطْعِمُوا، وَكُلُوا، وَتَصَدَّقُوا.

And it was narrated in Ibn Abī Shaybah that Abū Sa’īd used to say to his son, “When you have slaughtered your Udḥiyya then feed it to others, eat from it and give charity from it.” Similar is narrated from ibn Mas’ūd also, and from ‘Ataa.

It is correct that Sa’īd bin al-Musayyib and ‘Urwah bin al-Zubair said. “Only a quarter of the meat is for the one who slaughtered the Udḥiyya.”

 

مَا رُوِّينَاهُ مِنْ طَرِيقِ الْبُخَارِيِّ نَا إسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ أَبِي أُوَيْسٍ حَدَّثَنِي أَخِي أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ هُوَ ابْنُ بِلَالٍ – عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ عَنْ عَمْرَةَ «عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ فِي الضَّحِيَّةِ كُنَّا نُمَلِّحُ مِنْهُ فَنَقْدَمُ بِهِ إلَى النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – بِالْمَدِينَةِ فَقَالَ: لَا تَأْكُلُوا إلَّا ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ» وَلَيْسَتْ بِعَزِيمَةٍ وَلَكِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُطْعِمَ مِنْهُ .

If they mention what was narrated by Bukhari that ‘Āish’ah said:

We used to salt some of the meat of sacrifice and present it to the Prophet ﷺ at Medina. Once he said, “Do not eat (of that meat) for more than three days.” That was not ‘azimah (firm incumbent order), but (that year) he wanted to feed of it to others, Allah knows better. [Bukhari 5570]

Then this narration is not a proof for them, since the words ‘that was not ‘azimah’ is not from the speech of the messenger of Allah ﷺ, rather it is just a guess of some of the narrators of this hadith which is shown by the final statement of this hadith ‘he wanted to feed of it to others’. And Allah knows best.

[Note: Ibn Ḥajr states in Fathul Bari, Vol. 10, p. 34, Dar as-Salaam, Riyadh, that Al-Isma’ili says the extra statements as the order not being ‘azimah is from the words of Yahya bin Sa’id al-Ansari]

 

عَنْ أَبُو عُبَيْدٍ مَوْلَى ابْنِ أَزْهَرَ أَنَّهُ شَهِدَ الْعِيدَ مَعَ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ قَالَ: ثُمَّ صَلَّيْت مَعَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَصَلَّى لَنَا قَبْلَ الْخُطْبَةِ ثُمَّ خَطَبَ النَّاسَ فَقَالَ: إنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – قَدْ نَهَاكُمْ أَنْ تَأْكُلُوا لُحُومَ نُسُكِكُمْ فَوْقَ ثَلَاثِ لَيَالٍ فَلَا تَأْكُلُوا

And also in the narration of Abū Bakr bin abī Uways is a great matter which is that ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib used to hold this to be Wājib as well as ‘Umar.

It was narrated in Muslim from Abu ‘Ubaid, the freed slave of Ibn Azhar, reported that he prayed the Eid prayer with Umar b. al-Khattab, and then prayed the Eid prayer with ‘Alī b. Abī Ṭālib.

He reported:

“He led us in prayer before delivering the sermon and then addressed the people saying: Allah’s Messenger ﷺ has forbidden you to eat the flesh of your sacrificial animals beyond three nights, so do not eat that.” [Muslim]

عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السُّلَمِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ قَالَ: لَا يَأْكُلْ أَحَدٌ مِنْ لَحْمِ أُضْحِيَّتِهِ فَوْقَ ثَلَاثٍ

And the narration of Abū ‘Abdurraḥmān al-Sulami from ‘Ali ibn abi Ṭālib that he said, “None of you should eat from the meat of his Udḥiyya after three days.”

‘Ali [Ibn Ḥazm] said:

The hadith of Abū ‘Ubayd, the freed slave of ibn Azhar who said, “it was the year of ‘Uthmān’s house-arrest and the fitna had reached people of al-Bawādi in Medina, and difficulty had reached them so they commanded similar to what the Messenger of Allah commanded when a group of people and difficulty had come to them.

 

وَبِاَللَّهِ تَعَالَى التَّوْفِيق
And with Allah is success.

Ibn Ḥazm al-Andalūsi. A., Muhalla B’il Aathaar., Beirut, Dar Fikr, Shamela, vol. 6, pp. 48-51.

 

***Courtesy:- http://darhadith.com/pubs/***

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